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THE ORE DATABASE
Deposit Area 1111 - 019
(Last updated 19.des.2017)

Name of Deposit Area : Tellnes
(Object Id : 1111,019,00,00)

Location
County : Rogaland (11) Municipality : Sokndal (1111)
Map 1:50000: Sokndal (1311-4) Map 1:250000: Mandal
Marking point: Longitude: 6.4164600 Latitude: 58.3371470
EU89-UTM Zone 32 (Coordinates IS confirmed)
X-coord: 348750 m. Y-coord: 6469149 m.

Commodity
Main Type: Ferrous metals(Fe, Mn, Ti) Sub Type: Iron-Titanium
Element(s): Fe Ti Ni
Production
Activity: Mining Reserves: 575000 thousand tons
Prod. method: Open pit mining Production: 130000 thousand tons
Prod. status: Active Volume of dump: 80000000 m3
Resource estimat. standard: Non compliant

Importance
Public: International Importance (reg. 18.05.2015)
Economical: Very significant , (Confirmed 16.feb.2001 by Leif Furuhaug)

Products
Element/product Crude ore grade or quality
CU
FE_MAG 1 %
NI
TIO2 18 %

Operations
From - To Activity Comments
1960 Regular production Company/Institution :Titania A/S
Titania is owned by US-based NL Inc. through Kronos Norge A/S

Mineralization
Era: Proterozoic Period: Neoproterozoic
Dating: 920 (-3\+3) million year Method: U/Pb
Genesis: Orthomagmatic formation Form: Cigar
Main texture: Massive Min. distribution: Semi-massive (20-50 % ore minerals)
Main grain size: Fine grained (< 1 mm) Main alteration:
Strike/Dip: Direction:
Plunge:
Ti-deposit type(s)
Main type: Magmatic Ilm/Mt-ratio: > 5
Sub type: Ilm +/- Mt +/- Ap in mafic intrusion %TiO(Ore): > 12
Titanium province: Rogaland anorthosite province %P2O5(Ore): <1
Host rock: Norite %MgO(Ilm): > 3
Main Ti mineral: Ilmenite %V2O3(Mt):
ppm U (Rutile):
Stratigraphic classification of host rock
Era: Proterozoic Period: Neoproterozoic
Province: South Norwegian Basement Province
Geotec.unit:
Tectonic complex:
Igneous complex: Egersund Anorthosite Complex
Group: Formation:

Mineralogy
Relationship Mineral Amount
Gangue mineral Pyroxene Major mineral (>10%)
Gangue mineral Plagioclase Major mineral (>10%)
Gangue mineral Biotite Subordinate mineral (1-10%)
Gangue mineral Apatite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Gangue mineral Zircon Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Ilmenite Major mineral (>10%)
Ore mineral Titanomagnetite Subordinate mineral (1-10%)
Ore mineral Pyrrhotite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Siegenite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Pyrite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Pentlandite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Millerite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Marcasite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Covellite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Violarite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Bravoite Accessory mineral (<1%)
Ore mineral Chalcopyrite Accessory mineral (<1%)

Lithology:
Relationship Rock Origin
Host rock Norite Intrusive
Original rock :Norite
920 (-3\+3) mill. years;..Method:U/Pb
Wall rock Anorthosite Intrusive
Original rock :Anorthosite
931 (-5\+5) mill. years;..Method:U/Pb

Information(s) in free text format
Free text
Titania is one of the largest producers of ilmenite in the world, based on the open pit mining of the Tellnes deposit, with 6-7 % of the World production. The company supplies ilmenite to the European titanium pigment industry, which converts the black ilmenite into a white titanium dioxide pigment. This pigment has a multitude of uses, such as paints, plastics, paper and cosmetics. The company was established in 1902 with its main office in Hauge. 14 years later it started mining at the Storgangen deposit at Sandbekk 3 km NE of Hauge, and a new company, Titan Co A/S of Fredrikstad, now Kronos Titan A/S, acquired the share majority. In 1927 the company was taken over by the US based National Lead Company, now NL Inc. Through Kronos Norge A/S it now owns Titania. The Tellnes deposit was discovered in 1954 by an aeromagnetic survey. Production started at Tellnes in October 1960, while the Storgangen operation continued until 1965. Since then all of Titania's mining activities have been confined to Tellnes. Production from the Tellnes open pit is 2 million tons of ore and 1.6 million tons of waste rock, resulting in a production of approx. 580,000 tons ilmenite concentrate (1999). Production data after 1999 are withheld. Tellnes is the largest titanium deposit in Europe and probably the largest titanium deposit in production in the world today. It is one (of two) major hard-rock titanium deposits in production in the world. All other significant titanium mineral production is from sand deposits. The ore reserves are 380 million tons averaging 18 % TiO2 of which approx. 15% TiO2 is as ilmenite (30% ilmenite) and 3 % of the TiO2 is within other minerals. At depth additional 250 million tons of ore has been identified. Two groups have extensively studied the Tellnes deposit: Krause's group from Clausthal and Duchesne's group from Liége; see Krause et al. (1985) and Duchesne (1999), respectively. The Tellnes deposit is an ilmenite-rich norite intrusion into the Åna-Sira anorthosite, as evidenced by sharp contacts, numerous apophyses cutting the surrounding anorthosite, intrusive breccias, and xenoliths of anorthosites. It has a sickle-shaped outcrop more than 2700 m long and is more than 400m wide in its central part. The northwestern contact dips 50-45o SW and the opposite contact varies from almost vertical to 45o dip. Two faults dipping westward and two sub vertical basalt dikes, striking E-W, intersect the outcrop (Krause et al. 1985). The vertical displacement of the orebody, caused by the faults, is in the order of 80-100m. The orebody has a complicated relationship to a jotunitic to mangeritic dyke system. U-Pb ages on zircon and baddeleyite from the ilmenite orebody are 920 ± 3 Ma, thus slightly younger than the jotunitic dyke (931 ± 5 Ma) (Schärer et al. 1996). Isotopically, the ilmenite norite can be derived from the crystallisation of a noritic liquid related to the crystallisation of the surrounding Åna-Sira anorthosite (Wilmart et al. 1989). Liquids of appropriate composition are, however, not known elsewhere in the massif, thus the exact nature of the parent magma of the Tellnes deposit is ill defined (Duchesne 1999). The Tellnes deposit is homogeneous in a large scale; euhedral plagioclase (An45-42), only locally slightly bent and granulated, and euhedral bronzite (En77-75) with subordinate olivin (Fo80) are enclosed by an interstitial hemo-ilmenite (Hem13) and Fe-Ni-Cu-Co sulfides. The average modal composition (vol. %) of the ilmenite norite is: plagioclase 53.2%, ilmenite (28.6%), orthopyroxene (10.2%), biotite (3.9%), magnetite (0.7-2.5%), accessories (3.4%) (Gierth 1970). The accessories comprise at least 24 minerals including apatite. Among the accessory opaque minerals, baddeleyite is ubiquitous (Gierth & Krause 1974). The sulfides include several subsolidus transformations of a primary Fe-Ni-(Co)-Cu association. Bravoite, chalcopyrite, covelite, marcasite, millerite, pentlandite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, siegenite and violaritehave been described (Gierth, Krause & Schott 1982). Two types of symplectitic intergrowths are present in the Tellnes ore. Symplectitic intergrowths of bronzite and magnetite (with some ilmenite) are considered to be due to the breakdown of primary olivine. Such textures are found almost exclusively along the margins of the orebody. Symplectitic intergrowths of oxides, sulfides and bronzite, replacing olivine, occur in the sulfide-rich upper part of the orebody (Gierth 1970, Gierth & Krause 1973). The concentration of Cr and V in the ilmenite are closely linked with the exsolved hematite; this was first pointed out by Gierth & Krause (1974).
References
Duchesne, J.-C. 1999: Fe-Ti deposits in Rogaland anorthosites (South Norway): geochemical characteristics and problems of interpretation. Mineralium Deposita 34, 182-198. Gierth, E. & Krause, H. 1973: Die Ilmenitlagerstãtte Tellnes (Südnorwegen). Norsk Geol. Tidskr. 53, 359-402. Gierth, E. & Krause, H. 1974: Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, No. 57: Baddeleyit von Tellnes. Norsk geol. Tidskr. 54, 193-197. Gierth, E. 1970: Die Ilmenitlagerstätte von Tellnes (Südnorwegen). Unpubl. theses, TU Clausthal, 71 pp. Krause, H. , Gierth, E. & Schott, W. 1985: Ti-Fe deposits in the South Rogaland igneous complex, with special reference to the Åna-Sira anorthosite massif. Nor. geol. unders. Bull. 402, 25-37. Schãrer, U., Wilmart, E. & Duchesne, J.-C. 1996: The short duration and anorogenic character of anorthosite magmatism: U-Pb dating of the Rogaland complex, Norway. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 139, 335-350.

Bibliography:
From NGU's Reference Archive:
Buer, Kjell Yngvar , 1982
Bruddtektoniske studier omkring gruvefeltene Dalen Kjørholt (Brevik) og Titania (Tellnes).
;UiO Geologisk fellesråd;AVHANDLING

Ellingsen, Knut , 1971
Vannforsyning til bolig, Tellnes
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.HY-00553;1 pages
Abstract:
Brev: 2065/71G Bergarten er gneis og amfibolitt tilsynelatende svært tett. Boring antas å gi små sjanser for vann. Et borested anvist N300 mot V, 60o skrått.

Gellein, Jomar , 1987
Gravimetriske målinger sør for Tellnes dagbrudd
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.87.132;12 pages
Abstract:
Titania A/S er blitt pålagt å vurdere mulighetene for avgangsdeponering på land. I den forbindelse ble det målt gravimetri langs 2 profiler i det aktu- elle deponeringsområdet, for å kartlegge eventuelle malmleier. Gravimetrimålingene ga klare positive anomalier over forekomsten. I det aktuelle deponeringsområdet framkommer det ingen anomalier av betydning. Dette indikerer at det her ikke finnes interessante malmmengder.

Gierth, E.; Krause, H. , 1974
Baddeleyit von Tellnes. Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no. 57.
;Norsk geologisk forening;TIDSSKRIFTARTIKKEL;Norsk geologisk tidsskrift; No.54 (2);193-197 pages
Abstract:
Frie emneord: Baddeleyitt Baddelyite was found in some ilmenite ores of the anorthositic area in south Norway. Observations of baddeleyite in polished sections from the Tellnes deposits are described.

Gierth, E.; Krause, H. , 1973
Die Ilmenitlagerstätte Tellnes (Süd-Norwegen)
;Norsk geologisk forening;TIDSSKRIFTARTIKKEL;Norsk geologisk tidsskrift; No.53 (4);359-402 pages
Abstract:
The ilmenite-deposit Tellnes (south Norway) is a through-like, massive ore body of ilmenite-norite with sharp borders against the surrounding anorthosite. Samples taken from drill cores are preferably used for detailed mineragraphic description, paragenesis and modal and chemical analyses. Field observations and microscopic investigations prove that the ore body has been formed by intrusion and fractional crystallization in connection with precambrian evolution of this area. An explanation of the genesis will be undertaken after further investigation of the other ilmenite deposits in the Åna-Sira massif.

Karlsen, Tor Arne , 1997
Geometry of fracture zones and their influence on the ore quality at the Tellnes ilmenite mine, Rogaland
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.97.031;73 pages

Karlsen, Tor Arne; Furuhaug, Leif; Korneliussen, Are , 2000
Oppfølgende strukturmålinger i Tellnes-bruddet, Rogaland
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.99.137;10 pages
Abstract:
Fortrolig til 14.02.2007. På oppdrag fra Titania AS er det gjort oppfølgende undersøkelser av sprekker/ forkastninger og omvandlingssoner i Tellnes-bruddet. Arbeidet er en oppfølging av tidligere arbeider hvor strukturer ble kartlagt og tolket i detalj. Uttak av malm de siste 3 år har ført til at nye områder med sprekke/forkast- ningssoner med eller uten assosiert omvandling har blitt synliggjort. Nye lokaliteter med omvandling er beskrevet fra de store strukturene "Tellnesvatn-, Tellnesmyra- og Leirviken-lineamentene. Dette har ført til en viss justering av omvandlingssonenes forløp. En rekke antatt mindre betydningsfulle soner med variabel omvandlingsgrad er også kartlagt.

Knorn, Heinz; Krause, Hans , 1977
Die Verbandsverhältnisse südlich von Tellnes im zentralteil des Åna-Sira-Massivs (Südnorwegen).
;Norsk geologisk forening;TIDSSKRIFTARTIKKEL;Norsk geologisk tidsskrift; No.57 (1);85-95 pages
Abstract:
Some results of the geological mapping of the southern-central part of the Åna-Sira-Massif are presented. The Åna-Sira-Massif belongs to the massif anorthosites and is characterized by its numerous and manifold Fe-Ti ores. The Åna-Sira-Massif shows a layered composition, resulting from its rock sequence and structure. Cumulate textures, graded bedding, rhythmic layering, igneous lamination, cross-bedding, slumping and the whole structure of the mass, argue for a synkinematic, magmatic origin through fractional crystallization under the influence of convection currents. The ilmenite ores are probably the products of the oxide-rich residual melt after the formation of the main part of the anorthositic rocks.

Mauring, Eirik; Gellein, Jomar , 1996
Gravimetriske målinger over Tellnes ilmenittforekomst, Sokndal kommune, Rogaland
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.95.144;48 pages

Nilsson, Lars Petter; Karlsen, Tor Arne , 1998
Mineralogy of fractures zones, Tellnes ilmenite ore, Rogaland
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;NGU-rapport; No.98.111;59 pages

, 1973
Beskrivelse av Tellnesanlegget, A/S Titania.
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;FAGRAPPORT;Bergarkivet; No.BA 7364;16 pages
Abstract:
Rapporten gir en oversikt over selskapets utvikling fra starten i 1902 og fram til 1973. De viktigste geologiske trekk vedrørende de angivende anorthosittiske til norittiske bergarter og malmer blir omtalt. Typisk for Tellnesmalmen er et konstant Tio2-innhold på 18 %. Dagbruddsdriften og oppredningsprosessen, som inkluderer flotasjon, blir ut- førlig beskrevet.

Buer, Kjell Yngvar , 1982
Bruddtektoniske studier omkring gruvefeltene Dalen Kjørholt (Brevik) og Titania (Tellnes).
;UiO Geologisk fellesråd;AVHANDLING

Krause, H.; Gierth, E.; Schott, W. , 1985
Ti-Fe deposits in the South Rogaland igneous complex, with special reference to the Åna-Sira anorthosite massif.
;Norges geologiske undersøkelse;TIDSSKRIFTARTIKKEL;NGU Bulletin; No.402;25-37 pages
Abstract:
The South Rogaland igneous complex with its large anorthositic, noritic and mangeritic intrusions hosts a number of Ti-Fe deposits. 81 prospects and mines are known, 35 being situated within the Åna-Sira anorthosite massif. Blåfjell mine, active from 1863-1876, produced some 90,000 t of ore. Storgangen (1916-1965) yielded a total of 10 Mt with another 60 Mt of proven reserves. The only operating mine today is Tellnes, which started production in 1960. In 1984 about 2.6 Mt of crude ore were mined, equivalent to 656,000 t ilmenite concentrate and accounting for 10% of the world production of TiO2. By-products were 17,000 t magnetite concentrate and 9,000 t sulfide concentrate. Proven ore reserves are 300 Mt.

Duchesne, J.C. , 1999
Fe-Ti deposits in Rogaland anorthosites (South Norway): geochemical characteristics and problems of interpretation.
;ARTIKKEL;Mineralium Deposita; No.34;182-198 pages
Abstract:
(Forkortet) The Rogaland anorthosite province (S.Norway) contains numerous Fe-Ti oxide deposits, including the second most important ilmenite deposit in the world, the Tellnes deposit. The largest deposits are located in the Åna-Sira anorthosite massif. Others occur in the Håland-Helleren anorthosite massif, particularly along the deformed contact with the Egersund-Ogna massif. Other occur in the Håland-Helleren anorthosite massif...

References not to be found in NGU's Reference Archive.:
Giert, E. 1970: Die Ilmenittlagerstätte von Tellnes (Südnorwegen). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis TU Clausthal., 71 p.


Gierth, E. & Krause, H. 1974: Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, No. 57: Baddeleyit von Tellnes. Nor. Geol. Tidskr. 54, 193-197.


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